Frequently Asked Questions...
Are probiotics good for you?
I've had nausea & stomach problems for about 8 months. My dr gave me Align Probiotic & I've been taking it for 3 weeks. It really seems like its helping with the nausea & able to eat more. I heard probiotics are really good. I also heard they may cause infections? Is this true or are they good for you? Also, can you take probiotics for life?
I believe they are good for you. Probiotics are good bacteria that help fight off the bad bacteria that lives in your body.
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General Knowledge Pt.- II (a)
Why is the trajectory of pluto different from all other planets?
The peculiarity of Pluto's trajectory is that both its eccentricity and inclination to the ecliptic, the approximate plane in which the orbits of the other planets lie, are extremely high. As Pluto was discovered only in 1930, astronomers haven't been able to fully explain the peculiarity of its orbit. A hypothesis proposed that it was originally a moon to Neptune, and later somehow escaped from Neptune's gravity In 1978, when Pluto's moon, Charon, was discovered, new theories were proposed regarding the origin of both Pluto and Charon. It is now believed that *both of them were formed independently, but after some time there was a collision between Pluto and the original Charon. From the debris of that collision, the present Charon was formed, and the collision was also perhaps responsible for Pluto acquiring its peculiar orbit.
What's the composition of monosodium glutamate?
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, Vetsin) is a monosodium salt (with one sodium ion) of glutamic acid. Chemically, it is HOOC-CH2-CH2-CH(NH2)-COONa or empirically C5H8NO 4Na. It's widely used as a taste enhancer in place of vinegar derivatives in soups, sauces, etc. because of its pleasantly tangy taste. Recent scientific studies have shown that this salt does a lot more then stimulate the taste bud. Excess consumption is known to cause a disorder called the Chinese Restaurant Syndrome.
Which is the largest helicopter in the world?
The 40-metre long, 200-kg heavy Russian designed Mi-26 is the largest helicopter in the world. This flying machine can take off with up to 56,000 kgs of total weight and is the first helicopter with an 8-blade main rotor. This high-load capacity and high-cruise speed (295 km/hr) makes this machine very efficient. Designed for both civil and military use, it took off on its maiden flight in December 1977. It's now used to ply military and civil cargo, firefighting, as a fuel tanker, flying crane, and for antisubmarine warfare.
Who invented the bicycle?
Comte Mede de Sivrac of France invented the first bicycle around 1790. It was a wooden scooter-like contraption called celerifere. The modern form was developed by a French father and son team of carriage makers, Pierre and Ernest Michaux in 1860s, which had metal tyres instead of wooden ones. Later, airfilled rubber tyres replaced these in the 1880s.
What is the new name for pluto?
After Pluto was deemed not to be a planet but a dwarf planet, it's also known by another name now. Or rather a number. In all scientific references, the asteroid number 134340'll know it. This has decided by the Minor Planet Centre, the organisation responsible for data collection about objects in the solar system.
What are the orbits of staurn's moons called?
Saturn has at least 47 known moons. However, the moons have two orbits — Janus and Epimethus. Saturn has been in the news ever since a new ring was discovered, possibly caused by a meteorite's impact on one of its moons. Saturn is said to have at least seven rings.
Why is the rainbow arc -shaped?
The rainbow's appearance is caused by dispersion of sunlight as it is refracted by (approximately spherical) raindrops. The light is first refracted as it enters the surface of the raindrop, reflected off the back of the drop, and again refracted as it leaves the drop. The overall effect is that the incoming light is reflected back over a wide range of angles, with the most intense light at an angle of about 40-42 degrees. The different colours (wavelengths) of light have different refractive indices which cause them to bend unequally. Thus, a rainbow is arc-shaped.
What is base jumping?
BASE jumping is the sport of jumping down with the help of a parachute from stationary objects like buildings, bridges, towers, and mountain cliffs. In fact, the acronym BASE stands for Building, Antenna, Span, and Earth. BASE-jumping is derived from the safer sport of skydiving, in which a person jumps from a moving aircraft and uses a parachute to land safely. BASE jumping is more dangerous than skydiving because, often, the height involved in the jump is quite low, sometimes as low as 200 feet. At such heights, the parachute sometimes does not open, rendering the fall fatal. For this reason, in several parts of the world, BASE jumping is declared illegal.
What's the origin of 'nineteen to the dozen'?
While the exact origin of the phrase is unknown, it is often traced back to the Cornish beam engines of the Newcomen era in the 18th Century. These engines could pump 19,000 gallons from a tin mile. All this from just 12 bushels of coal. In speech, the phrase means someone who talks too fast or too much.
What is solar wind?
It's the flux of particles, chiefly protons and electrons together with nuclei of heavier elements in smaller numbers, that are accelerated by the high temperatures of the solar corona, or outer region of the Sun, to velocities large enough to allow them to escape from the Sun's gravitational field. The solar wind is responsible for deflecting both the tail of the Earth's magnetosphere and the tails of comets away from the Sun.
Why do the blades of a ceiling fan rotate anti-clockwise?
There is no definitive rule regarding the direction of rotation, which is determined how the forces are acting on the electrical coils in the motor of the fan. There are two parts in a fan motor — rotor and stator. The stator has magnetic poles, which generate magnetic flux. This interacts with the coils on the rotor and applies a couple causing the rotation of the rotor. In a table fan, the blades are fixed to the rotor and the movement appears to be clockwise. In a ceiling fan, the blades are fixed to the stator, hence the movement of blades appear to be anti-clockwise.
Where is india's only active volcano?
Barren Island, one of the most easterly of the Andaman Islands, is the only confirmed active volcano in India. The island along with the rest of the Andamans is the the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, and lies some 135 kms northeast of the territory's capital, Port Blair. The first recorded eruptions of the volcano dates back to 1787. Since then, the volcano has erupted more than six times.
How is supercritical water generated?
Supercritical water is generated through an oxidation process, which occurs in water at temperatures and pressures that exceed it's thermodynamic critical point. This process imbues the water with unique properties, capable of destroying harmful wastes such as PCBs. This process is considered to be a clean technology.
What is cold fusion?
The term first came into existence in 1989 when chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann reported production of excess heat in an electrolytic cell containing deuterium oxide. Cold fusion denotes the generation of excess heat by fusion of deuterium nuclei. The process differs from the general process of fusion as it does not require high amount of energy for initiation and is possible on tabletop apparatus. It's not been completely understood and some scientists consider it pseudoscience. If the results can be successfully repeated and developed, cold fusion can meet all our present-day energy requirements.
What is the magnetic hill in ladakh?
The Magnetic Hill is located on the Leh-Kargil-Batalik National Highway, about 30 kms from Leh, at a height of 14,000 ft above sea level. The hill supposedly has magnetic properties which attracts metallic objects, making vehicles move up at a speed of about 20 kmph with their engines off. However, many feel that it's a mere optical illusion and nothing to do with magnetic fields, electricity or unknown forces working along mysterious lines.
What is special about luminette glasses?
The Luminette is a light apparatus rather like a pair of spectacles, but can be worn on top of normal glasses to administer luminotherapy treatment. Luminotherapy means light therapy and usually involves half-hour sessions in front of a light source. It's specially adapted to treat seasonal depression. Light exposure slows down melatonin production, fighting sleepiness and depression. The light reaches the brain through the retina of the eye, as nerve impulses, to alter hormone levels, which in turn reset your body clock and boost your immune system.
Why are there 60 seconds in a minute?
The correct answer is as follows: 60 is the first number divisible by 2.3, 4 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20 and 30 Therefore, it can be divided easily into those many equal parts like: 1/3,1/5, etc. without any fraction left over (i.e. zero remainder) Hence, it is useful for equal division. It's also why there are 12 in a dozen, 24 hours in a day, 60 minutes m an hour and 360 degrees m a circle.
If energy is neither created nor destroyed where does it comes from?
In the universe, all forms of energy must be associated with some mass. This means that a system or a particle of mass (m) is equivalent to an energy, E = mc2, where c is the velocity of light in vacuum. There are several forms of energies like nuclear energy (fusion and fission), energy from collision of particles and also relativistic energy Solar energy is the outcome of fusion process resulting from small particles fusing into a large particle. Fission process produces energy by breaking up a heavy particle into small particles. Thermal energy is obtained by collision of particles. So fusion, fission and thermal processes are the main sources of energy in the universe.
What is an extended periodic table?
Glenn T Seaborg suggested an extended periodic table in 1969. It's a logical extension of the principles behind the standard periodic table to include undiscovered chemical elements. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name all of the undiscovered elements. The systematic element name is the standard of creating a generic name until it has been discovered, confirmed and an official name approved.
Why does the planet venus rotate from east to west, and not the other way round like other planets?
Experiments conducted on rotating semi-plastic spheres in viscous fluids show that they have a tendency to form a broad ring. Quite possibly, when our rotating Sun cooled to plastic condition, it may have formed a similar ring that broke to form planets. The Sun's rotation must have caused all planets to rotate from west to east and this is a reasonable conclusion. Why then is Venus the odd one out? One cause can be that the passage of a large asteroid or a comet close by this could have turned turtle Venus, throwing its north pole towards the south and change its direction of rotation.
What are nsg countries?
NSG countries are members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) set up in 1975. There are 45 countries consisting of the US, the UK, Canada, Japan, France, Germany, Russia, China and others. This group seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. It does this by regulating nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports through implementation of guidelines with appropriate safeguards, physical protection, nonproliferation conditions and other required restraints.
What is hyperbaric oxygen?
It is oxygen at a pressure that is above 1 atmosphere, also called high-pressure oxygen. Breathing hyperbaric oxygen to enhance the effectiveness of radiation therapy is being studied. In this procedure, a person breathes oxygen under greater atmospheric pressure in a special chamber. Once, it was thought to be a potential treatment for decompression sickness and air embolism.
Which is the biggest desert on earth?
The Sahara is only the world's largest non-polar desert. The largest desert is really Antarctica, at 5,500,00 sq miles. Sahara is 3,320,000 sq miles in area. A desert is classified as an area which gets less than 10 inches of precipitation per year, and precipitation includes both rain and snow. The Sahara is one of the hottest places on Earth. Even though temperatures there may rise to 57.7 Celsius, its dryness, not heat, makes it like a desert. Antarctica is so dry that some scientists consider it a desert. The Sahara receives less than 7.6 cm of rain a year. Even in its wettest areas, rain may arrive twice in one week, then not return for years.
Why do people cry or get emotional while watching sad scenes in movies or serials?
The phenomena of reacting to emotional scenes can be analysed by explaining mirror neurons. These are activated both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action being performed by another animal (especially belonging to the same species). The results of brain imaging experiments show that the human inferior frontal cortex and superior parietal lobule are active when a person performs an action and also when the person sees another individual performing an action. It explains much about how we learn to smile, walk, talk, or play tennis. At a deeper level, it suggests a common neurobiological dynamic for our understanding of others and the complex exchange of ideas we call culture. Mirror neurons let you walk in other person's shoes by creating an impression of you experiencing the same thing as the doer — be it reacting to sad scenes in movie or jumping with joy at an Indian cricket victory.
What does probiotic mean?
Probiotic is a microbe that protects its host and prevents disease. The best-known probiotic is Lactobacillus acidophilus, found in yogurt, acidophilus milk, and supplements. Probiotics counter the destruction of helpful intestinal bacteria by antibiotics. They are useful in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. The yeast 8 Boulardii and three strains of Lactobacillus are also useful. Probiotics are desirable bacilli present in the large intestine which offer many health benefits. Billions of bacteria inhabit the digestive system. These bacteria, also referred to as 'gut flora', are required to break down food remains that have not been digested and to discourage harmful bacteria and yeasts from invading the body The gut flora consists of 400 species of bacteria. Many produce vital vitamins and fatty acids and provide nutrients to the body They maintain low pH level in the large intestine and thereby lower the risk of harmful bacteria invading the body Ayurveda has been using this concept for centuries. The simplest probiotic food is curd which may contain one or a mixture^of these useful bacteria.
What is super string theory?
It is a model of fundamental physics whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero-dimensional point particles which form the basis for the standard model of particle physics. By replacing point-like particles with strings, an apparently consistent quantum theory of gravity emerges. Moreover, it may be possible to unify the known natural forces (gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear and strong nuclear forces) by describing them with the same set of equations as described in the theory of everything called the Grand Unified Theory (GUT).
What are tachyons?
Tachyons (a Greek word meaning swift) are hypothetical particles, which travel with a velocity greater than the speed of light in vacuum (or superluminal velocity) and represent the instability of the system. German physicist Arnold Sommer-feld gave the first description of tachyons. But George Sudarshan, OlexaMyron Bilaniuk and Gerald Feinberg (who originally coined the term) in the 1960s advanced a theoretical framework for their study In terms of Einstein's special relativity theory, these particles have space-like four momentum (momentum in four-dimensional coordinate system) and imaginary proper time. These particles generate Cherenkov radiation (the light equivalent of a sonic boom) when they cross the light barrier. However; according to special relativity such particles don't exist in reality and even if they did they wouldn't, be, able to transmit information or signals.
What are proto-galaxies?
Proto-galaxies or teenage galaxies are smaller galaxies which form larger ones through mergers and collisions over a period of time. Until recently, it was hard to detect these adolescent galaxies since the light they emitted were very faint. But using powerful telescopes, scientists have identified 27 protogalaxies. They further believe that in the beginning, a uniform gas existed in space which eventually began clumping together to form proto-galaxies, which later formed larger galaxies such as the Milky Way.
What is denuclearisation?
Denuclearisation means states disposing of nuclear weaponry or power in their possession. It includes removal, banning, or eliminating nuclear weapons or nuclear power sources from a place, industry, or organisation. Indiaihas long supported the idea of total global denuclearisation rather than denuclearisation of few states through the Npn-Proliferation Treaty.
How does a mobile jammer work?
A cell phone jammer is an instrument used to prevent cellular phones from receiving and transmitting mobile signals to a base station. The jammer effectively disables cellular phones in the area. Jammers block cell phone use by sending out radio waves along the same frequencies that cellular phones use. This causes enough interference with the communication of cell phones and the towers to render phones unusable. For using a mobile signal jammer, a licence is required under section 4 of the Telegraph Act, 1885.
What's made from coca leaves?
Coca (family: Erythroxylaceae), as opposed to cocoa, is the source of cocaine. The narcotic is usually extracted from the tips the leaves of this plant. Coca-leaf tea, although illegal in many countries, is supposed to have medicinal or stimulating effects. Many locals in South America also habitually chew it, while on a more global scale, it has been known to be used in the cola industry For the benefit of chocolate lovers, it must be added here that cocoa is a completely different agro-product and safely enough, has no link with the former in this respect Cocoa is made by processing the beans.of the.cacao plant (family: Theobroma, which, roughly translated, means 'food of the Gods'!).
What is dark energy?
Until the last decade, astronomers believed that galaxies were moving apart from each other at a constant speed. In this decade, they discovered that all galaxies are moving apart with acceleration. To accelerate, a force is required. So, this force which has properties like anti-gravity pushes matter away from each other with acceleration is called dark energy. Researchers are working extensively to understand the nature and source of this force.
What are white holes?
White holes are the opposite of black holes in astrophysics, so much so that they eject matter and anti-matter instead of sucking them as with black holes. White holes appear as part of the vacuum solution to the Einstein field equations describing a Schwarzschild wormhole. One end of such a wormhole is a black hole, sucking in matter and the other end is a white hole, ejecting matter. The oscillations between the black holes at opposite ends of wormhole force the black holes to become white holes. It is stipulated that spiral arms of galaxies have been formed out of ejected matter from white holes. The origin of our Sun also lies in one of the spirals of the galaxy Milky Way.
How many galaxies have been found till date? Which is the largest?
There are 4 million names in the NASA Extragalactic database (NED). It is estimated that there are as many as 200 billion galaxies in the observable universe, but we aren't able to see all of them yet because our telescopes are not big enough. The largest galaxies we know of are giant elliptical galaxies in the centres of clusters of galaxies. These galaxies are about 10 times more luminous than a typical galaxy (like the Milky Way) and about 100 times more massive. a good example is the central galaxy in the cluster Abell 2029.
What is a parallel universe?
The parallel universe theory, first proposed in 1950 by US physicist Hugh Everett, helps explain mysteries of quantum mechanics that have baffled scientists for decades. According to this theory, every time a new physical possibility is explored, the universe splits. Given a number of possible alternative outcomes, each one is played out in its own universe. A motorist who almost meets with an accident, for instance, might feel relieved at his lucky escape. But in a parallel universe in another version, the same driver would have been killed. Yet another universe will see the motorist recover after treatment in hospital. The number of alternative scenarios is endless. Like an everyday universe, it is a region of space and time containing matter, galaxies, stars, planets and living beings. In other words, every time a new physical possibility is explored, the universe splits. A parallel universe is similar and possibly even a duplicate of our own universe. There are human beings who may be exact duplicates of ourselves and who are connected to us through mechanisms only explainable using quantum physics concepts. Parallel universes are also calledalternative universes, quantum universes, parallel worlds, alternative timelines, etc.
What is homeomorphism?
Homeomorphism means similarity of shape. In chemistry, crystals of two different compounds are called homeomorphic if their forms are very close to each other. In ^topology, two spaces are said to be homeomorphic, or a homemorphism is said to exist between them, if each can be transformed into the other by a continuous stretching and bending alone, and not by tearing or folding. Accordingly, a circle is homeomorphic to a square, and homeomorphism exits between a tea cup and a doughnut.
What are albedo values?
The fraction of incoming light reflected by a body such as a planet or any other object is called albedo. The albedo of an object is the extent to which it reflects light, defined as the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. A body with a high albedo, near 1, is very bright, while a body with a low albedo, near 0, is dark. The Moon has an average albedo of 0.12, Venus 0.76, Earth 0.37. It is a unitless measure indicative of the diffuse reflectivity of a surface or body. The albedo is an important concept in astronomy. Its value depends on the frequency of radiation considered. In general, the albedo depends on the direction and directional distribution of incoming radiation,
What particles are emitted when gamma rays strike a metallic plate? What is the phenomenon called?
Gamma rays, like light rays, are basically electromagnetic rays. When gamma rays of optimum frequency strike a metal plate, they give the same result obtained when light rays strike a metal plate — they emit electrons (negatively charged particles). This phenomenon is called the photoelectric effect.
What is bode's law?
Bode's Law is an arithmetical relation which is supposed to establish a connection between the distances of planets from the Sun. It was first discovered by German mathematician Johann Titius in 1766 and published by the German astronomer Johann Bode in 1772. The law states that the relative distances are in the proportions 4,7, 10,16. 28, 52,100 and 196. Adding 4 derive this series of numbers to each number of the series 0,3,6,12,24 and so on. At the time of its discovery, only six planets were known and the numbers closely fitted the observed facts. However, the positions of the more recently discovered planets — Neptune and Pluto (now considered a dwarf planet) — deviate widely from those predicted by Bode's Law. Astronomers now believe the relationship is a coincidence because the law is without theoretical basis.
Why is the plaster of paris called so?
Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. Plaster was first made about 9000 years ago, and has been used by ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilizations. However, it wasn't used on a large scale until 1700s, when it was required to be used in all construction in Paris. In 1666, a fire raged across London, destroying many parts of it. In its aftermath, the king of France ordered that all walls made of wood in Paris be immediately covered with plaster, as a protection against such fires. This resulted in large-scale mining of gypsum which was available around Paris in huge quantities. Thus, during the early 18th century, Paris became the centre of plaster production, and hence the name, plaster of Paris.
What is project blue book?
This project is associated with the study of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). From 1947 to 1969, the US Air force started working on a special project named Blue Book. It was started for investigating UPOs and whether they posed any danger to national security. But it was discontinued later because they could not gather any solid information about UFOs.
What is a jordan curve?
First stated by Camille Jordan to 1887, the Jordan Curve Theorem says that any simple closed curve in a'plane divides the plane into two disjoint regions (inside and outside of the curve). By simple closed curve, roughly a curve which does not cross itself but eventually joins itself; more formally, the theorem refers to any homeomorphism( image of a circle. Although the statement of the Jordan Curve Theorem seems obvious, it was a very difficult theorem to prove. The first to attempt a proof was Bernard Bolzano, followed by a numbci of other mathematicians includ ig CamUle Jordan after whom ie theorem is named. None coul 1 provide a correct proof, until 0 wald Veblen finally did in 1905. Several alternative proofs have been found since then. A rigorous 6,500-line formal proof of the theorem was produced in 2005 by an international team of mathematicians using the Mizar System.
Why is infrared radiation used as signals during wipr?
Ordinary visible light is scattered by haze but infrared (IR) radiation can penetrate through the haze without being scattered. Therefore, these can be used as signals on distant objects obscured by atmospheric haze. Also, IR radiation enables sharpshooters to see their targets in total darkness. These devices essentially consist of an IR lamp which sends a beam of IR radiation (called black light) and a telescope receiver which picks up returned radiation from the object and converts it to a visible image.
What is a dihedral group?
In mathematics, a dihedral group is the group of symmetries of a regular polygon, including both rotations and reflections. Dihedral groups are among the simplest examples of finite groups, and they play an important role in group theory, geometry, and chemistry There are two competing notations for the dihedral group associated to a polygon with n sides. In geometry, Dn, while in algebra denotes the group, the same group is denoted by D2n to indicate the number of elements.
What is polygraphy?
This is the process of using an instrument called polygraph, which is also popularly known as a lie detector.
Who was the mysterious mona lisa?
The identity of the famed muse of Leonardo da Vinci was a mystery until recently. German researchers claim they have solved the mystery of the woman who was Mona Lisa. They believe it was Lisa del Giocondo, the wife of a wealthy merchant in Florence named Francesco del Giocondo. The discovery is based on dated notes by a Florentine city official who was a friend of the artist. Interestingly, the painting, now on display at the Louvre in Paris, is called La Gioconda in Italian, which means the happy or joyful woman. The title is uncannily similar to Lisa's married name.
Why is glass transparent?
When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in different ways. These interactions depend on the nature of the light and the nature of the material. For instance, light falling on a leaf encounters many pigment molecules, predominantly chlorophyll. These molecules absorb light from the red and blue ends of the visible spectrum. The remaining light is scattered back because molecules in a leaf are tightly packed and so, we see a green leaf. Glass has properties of both a solid (its molecules don't move very much) and a liquid (the molecules are not arranged in any ordered way). Molecules in glass are not packed into a tight lattice and, unless tinted, it doesn't contain molecules that capture light with a particular energy So, when light encounters glass, most of it passes straight through. Hence it is transparent.
What is nephology?
The Greek root nephos means cloud, and is found in a variety of meteorological terms such as nephology the study of clouds; and the nephoscope, an instrument used to detect cloud motions. Nephology is a specialised and complex branch of science. Nephologists study clouds to help people understand weather patterns.
What are magic bullets in pharmaceutical terms?
The German scientist Paul Ehrlich, considered the father of chemotherapy, originally coined the term magic bullet in the 19th century to refer to arsenic containing chemicals that showed the remarkable ability to cure syphilis — a sexually transmitted disease. He proposed the seminal idea that each disease must be treated with a chemical specific for that disease. His greatest contribution was the discovery of Salvarsan — the first effective treatment for syphilis. In the pharmaceutical industry, the term magic bullets is used to refer to antibiotics that are used to treat infectious diseases like pneumonia, typhoid, tuberculosis, malaria etc. The remarkable specificity with which antibiotics kill disease-causing micro-organisms without causing major side effects in humans and animals, combined with the ability to cure major infectious diseases that were previously considered incurable, earned them the name magic bullets.
What is darwin iv planet?
Darwin IV is a fictional planet 6.5 light years from the Earth, with two suns and 60% gravity. It was depicted in the series Alien Planet' based on Wayne Barlowe's book Expedition. According to the story, after identifying Darwin IV as a world that could support life, Earth sends a pilot mission consisting of the mothership Von Braun and three probes: Balboa, Da Vinci and Newton. This unmanned fleet is responsible for finding and assessing any life forms on Darwin IV. Initially, the expectation is to find microscopic life, but the probes soon find themselves in the middle of a developed ecosystem teeming with life of all sizes. The viewer experiences Darwin IV through the eyes of the probes Ike (Newton) and Leo (Da Vinci), whose data are relayed back to the mothership and then communicated to Earth. The biological and atmospheric data from the probes and mothership are relayed to viewers through computer voice simulation and on-screen readouts. The drama on Darwin IV is motivated by real science missions, such as the NASA Origins Program and the NASA/JPL Planet-Finder Mission, as well as the European Space Agency's Darwin Project.
What is the uncertainty principle?
The uncertainty principle was laid down by Heisenberg, and is called Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty. According to it, it is impossible to measure simultaneously the position and momentum/ velocity of a moving electron i.e. if any attempt is made to measure both things at the same instant, there will always be uncertainty in measurement of either. This is because to measure the position of electron correctly at a certain instant, we need to use short-wavelength radiations. But, as wavelength and energy are inversely related, the short wavelength radiation imparts high energy to the moving electron. As E =l/2mv2, where E is the energy of the electron, m is its mass, and v is its velocity, so energy E is directly proportional to velocity v of the electron. Thus, the electron will gain velocity or momentum and hence we cannot correctly measure its momentum/ velocity at that instant.
What is cosmology?
Cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origin of the Universe and the nature of the Universe on its very largest scale. In its earliest form it was known as celestial mechanics and the study of the heavens. Greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. This is one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in cosmology. With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved.
What are kirkwood gaps in asteroid belts?
Daniel Kirkwood first noticed the gaps in 1857 and they are named after him. These are regions in the main asteroid belt that have been cleared of asteroids by the perturbing effects of Jupiter. The Kirkwood gaps are due to resonances with Jupiter's orbital period. If an asteroid revolves twice around the Sun in the time it takes Jupiter to make one revolution, it is said to be in a 2:1 resonance orbit with Jupiter. Once every two orbits, Jupiter and such an asteroid would be in same relative position, so that the asteroid would experience a force in a fixed direction. Repeated applications of this force would eventually change the semi-major axis of asteroids in such orbits, creating gaps at that distance. An adequate explanation about why some resonances produce gaps and others produce concentrations is yet to be found.
What is electric fog?
The Hutchison effect is a widely-contested effect. It's related to the electric fog. Nobody but its founder has seen it and he hasn't been able to replicate the experiment in front of any scientist. An electric fog is said to cling to metals and slowly eat into it.
What is the red data book?
The Red Data Book is the state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi as well as some local sub-species that exist within the territory of the state or country This book provides central information for studies and monitoring programmes on rare and endangered species and their habits.
What are warm holes in physics?
Wormhole (not warm hole) is a hypothetical feature of the universe and is basically a shortcut through space and time. The name wormhole is derived from the analogy that a worm on the circumference of an apple can either go all around it or dig its way through to get to the other side. As is obvious, by digging through, the worm will take lesser time. The universe is assumed to be made up of a curved fabric — the space-time continuum. In a place where this fabric is so curved that it overlaps itself, a wormhole is formed. It consists of a black hole, a throat and a white hole. The black hole sucks matter into the throat and the white hole throws the matter out of the throat. Wormholes can help traverse very large distances in space in an instant. But they are only valid, theoretical solutions of general relativity. There is no proof of their existence, except in science fiction movies and novels, like Star Trek. —
What are warm holes in physics?
There are warm holes in Physics — semiconductor physics. The absence of an outer shell electron in a semiconductor lattice, formed as a result of covalent bonding of semiconductor atoms with an introduced trivalent impurity, is termed as a hole. A warm hole is supposed to exist at some stage.
What is the plato scale?
The Plato scale, developed in 1843 by German scientist Karl Balling and improved by Fritz Plato, is a hydrometer scale that measures the amount of malt sugars, or sucrose, in unfermented beer. The measure of sugar in any solution is known as specific gravity The unfermented beer or beer wort has a higher specific gravity than its derivative, the fermented beer, as heavy sugars are converted into lighter carbon dioxide and alcohol during fermentation. The higher the specific gravity or sugar content of the final fermented beer, the more body and richness it possesses. Professional brewers usually use the Plato scale, rather than the traditional specific gravity scale, to measure the sugar levels.
What is raman scattering?
Raman Scattering or Raman Effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon. This was first reported by CV Raman for which he was awarded the Nobel prize in 1930. When light is scattered from an atom or a molecule, most photons scatter elastically However, a very small fraction (1 in a million) is scattered inelastically. The frequency of these photons changes, usually becomes lower than that of the incident light. Therefore, because of Raman Scattering, the energy of photons decreases.
Why pig iron is called so?
Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting steel ore with coke and resin. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.5-4.5%, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. The traditional shape of moulds used for these ingots was a branching structure formed in sand, with many individual ingots at right angles to a central channel or runner. Such a configuration is similar in appearance to a litter of piglets suckling on a sow. When the metal had cooled and hardened, the smaller ingots (the pigs) were simply broken from the much thinner runner;(the sow), hence the name pig iron.
What is a gyroscope?
A gyroscope is any rotating body that exhibits two fundamental properties: gyroscopic inertia or rigidity in space and precession or the tilting of the axis at right angles to any force tending to alter the plane of rotation. These properties are inherent in all rotating bodies, including the Earth itself. The term gyroscope is commonly applied to spherical, wheel-shaped or disk-shaped bodies universally mounted to be free to rotate in any direction. They are used to demonstrate these properties or to indicate movements in space. A gyroscope constrained from moving around one axis other than the axis of rotation is sometimes called a gyrostat.
What does rapd stand for?
RAPD stands for Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA, RAPD reactions are PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) reactions but they amplify segments of DNA which are essentially unknown to the scientists as they are random.
How do you test the presence of methanol?
Methanol does not respond to the iodoform test (Open Space, Apr. 6). In fact, the test is given by ethanol and those alcohols which possess -hydroxymethyl group or -CH(OH)- group or carbonyl compounds having acetyl functionality Methanol can be detected by the Oil of wintergreen test. In this test, 1-2 ml of methanol along with few crystals of salicylic acid are treated with concentrated sulphuric acid in a test tube which is then gently heated. A characteristic smell of oil of wintergreen. (lodex type) is obtained due to the formation of methyl salicylate.
What is singularity in physics?
In Physics and Mathematics, sigularity is defined as a point at which a complex function is undefined because it is neither differentiable nor single-valued while the function is defined in every neighbourhood of the point. Specifically, a quantity which approaches infinity as another parameter goes to zero Like 1/x when x approaches zero. In astronomy, singularity is a hypothetical region in space in which gravitational forces cause matter to be infinitely compressed and space and time to become infinitely distorted.
How do you test the presence of methanol?
Methanol can be detected by using the iodoform test. Mix sodium hydroxide (NAOH) and iodine (12) in methanol. A yellow precipitate of CHI3 (iodoform) will indicate the presence of methanol. This test is used for those alcohol in which there is a _CH3 group is attached to the functional group.
What is the fermi problem?
The Fermi Problem, named after the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, is about a formula regarding how to think about what assumptions we make, how to make them as realistic as possible, how to estimate well, and how to put all these in the service of a straightforward mathematical calculation in order to come up with an answer.
What are squids in physics?
The Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, or SQUID, is an extremely sensitive magnetic flux-to-voltage transducer. The SQUID may be the most sensitive detector of any physical quantity, with an energy resolution that approaches the quantum limit. The extreme sensitivity of the SQUID has caused it to be incorporated into a great variety of systems. SQUIDs have been used to measure cortical activity in the human brain and to search for gravity waves.
What is a persuasive mirror?
It's a technology that enables people to see how they would look like in the future, based on their habits. Users will have to fill out a questionnaire detailing their lifestyle and upload their images. Based on the information provided, the technplogy will digitally age the person and show how she will appear six months later.
What is a datum line in geography?
A datum (plural datums or data) is a reference point from which measurements are made. In surveying and geodesy, a datum is a set of reference points on the Earth's surface against which position measurements are made. Horizontal datums are used for describing a point on the Earth's surface in latitude and longitude or another coordinate system. Vertical datums measure elevations or depths.
What is the fifth dimension?
In physics, the fifth dimension is a hypothetical extra dimension beyond the usual three spatial and one-time dimensions. Some scientists have speculated that the graviton, a particle thought to carry the force of gravity, may leak into the fifth or higher dimensions, which would explain how gravity is significantly weaker than the other three fundamental forces. M-theory (the mother of all theories underlying string theories) suggests that space-time has eleven dimensions, seven of which are 'rolled up' to below sub-atomic level. Scientist Hooft speculated that the fifth dimension is really the spacetime fabric. It has occasionally been stated that the fifth dimension refers to probability, meaning that it is the full amount of possibilities that could happen or, in other words, alternative realities.
What are eddy currents?
Eddy currents may be defined as currents induced in a thick conductor when it is placed in a changing electric field. Consider a metallic block placed in a continuously changing magnetic field by keeping the block fixed and changing the magnetic field with the help of an alternating current. Due to the continuous change of magnetic flux linked with the block, induced currents will be set up in the body of the metal block. These currents assume a circular path and the direction is such that it opposes the change producing it (according to ' Lenz's Law). These currents look like whirlpools in a fluid, and hence called eddy currents. Generally, they are quite large in magnitude and produce a heating effect.
What's geometric in geometric progression?
In mathematics, a geometric progression, also known as a geometric sequence, is a sequence of numbers in which each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed non-zero number called the common ratio. Books vm and DC of Euclid's Elements analyze geometric progressions and give several of their properties. A geometric progression gains its geometric character from the fact that the areas of two geometrically similar plane figures are in duplicate ratio to their corresponding sides. Further the volumes of two similar solid figures are in triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. For example, if two squares' sides have the ratio 2 to 3, then their areas will have the ratio 4 to 9; we can write 2/3 as 4 to 6 and 6 to 9 and notice that the ratios of 4 to 6 and 6 to 9 both equal 2 to 3; so by using the side ratio 2 to 3 in duplicate we obtain the ratio 4 to 9 of the areas, and the sequence 4, 6, 9 is a geometric sequence with common ratio 3/2.
What is bio-amplification?
It's the concentration of pollutant-like chloromethyl mercury in the food chain. It occurs when concentrations of toxins are passed on from smaller prey to larger predators.
What is panda porn?
Thailand zoo officials, in an attempt to get pandas to mate, used videos of other pandas mating and 'sexercise' to teach them the ropes. The pandas were an import from China, where officials devised these methods to help its national animal reproduce. Zookeepers are putting pandas, especially males, at the Chengdu Panda Breeding and Research Centre in Sichuan province through a rigorous programme to improve mating.
Why doesn't distilled water conduct electricity?
Distilled water does — but very little compared to piped, well or salt water. Liquid conducts electricity by the positively or negatively charged ions that are actually moving from one of the electrodes to the other, carrying charge (electricity) with them. Salt water has salt in it, NaCI, which readily ionizes to ions of Na+ and Cl- that can conduct electricity. Distilled water is water that was boiled to steam and recondensed to water. This leaves no salt in it. Water can ionize to H+ and OH- like salt does, but it does so to a far lesser degree and is very resistant to conducting electricity
Of all metals, why does mercury have the lowest melting point?
A metallic bond is characterized by free electrons and generally forms a specific geometric pattern of compact arrangement of atoms. All metals (except mercury) thus exist in a solid state at room temperature. Mercury belongs to the zinc group of elements. These have completely filled-up atomic orbitals. It becomes difficult to knock out these electron(s) from their orbitals and form metallic bonds. Therefore, mercury does not have a specific crystal structure and is the only metal that is liquid.
At what speed does electricity travel compared to light?
Electrical fields in theory do transmit at the speed of light. In real systems, wires have capacitance and other effects that slow the propagation. Typical propagation speeds are 0.3 to 0.7 times the speed of light.
What is riemann hypo thesis?
Riemann Hypothesis is an important result in Mathematics whose truth or otherwise is not yet known. This was conjectured by the German mathematician Gerhard Riemann in 1859. A lot of results have been proved on the assumption that the Riemann Hypothesis is true. They,would all stand or fall based on whether the hypothesis is proved or disproved.
Why does a magnet attract iron?
Before a piece of iron enters the magnetic field of a magnet, the polarization of the iron's atoms is random. When exposed to a magnetic field, the atoms begin to align their electrons with the flow of the magnetic field, which makes the iron magnetized as well.
What is a solar balloon?
The solar balloon is designed to trap solar energy using an inflatable plastic thin-film balloon called a solar concentrator. Half the balloon is transparent. When inflated, sunlight falls on it and focuses on a photovoltaic cell placed at its centre. This design reflects sunlight, producing 400 times the electricity that a solar cell would create without the concentrator and has been created by a company called Cool Earth. The film is abundant and cheap and does away with large expensive solar panels or costly concentrating mirrors. It can trap 500 watt to 1 kilowatt of solar energy
What is the packbot?
The PackBot Tactical Robot is deployed by the US in wars. It was first used by US ground troops in Afghanistan in 2002 to help clear caves and bunkers, search buildings and cross live minefields. They were also used in 2003 in Iraq in urban warfare and to search vehicles. By 2007, more than 800 PackBot robots were in operation in Iraq, Afghanistan and around the world. It is controlled by a Pentium-based computer, is tough, can survive falls and being submerged in water.
What is captured rotation?
When a satellite, natural or artificial, is orbiting its parent planet (or primary) under some conditions, the satellite revolves around itself quite fast relative to its period of rotation around the primary, both the periods coincide, this leads to the satellite facing the primary always with the same side, and is called captured rotatio or synchronousrotation. It occurs especially when the satellite is much smaller than the primary, and the two are separated by a relatively short distance.
What is an emulsifier?
A colloidal system involving one liquid dispersed in another is known as emulsion. Any two immiscible liquidscan form an emulsion, like oil and water. An emulsifier is an agent that stabilizes the emulsion by lowering the interfacial tension between the constituents of the emulsion. Examples of emulsifiers are soaps, detergents and gelatine.
What is olbers' paradox?
Modern theories of the universe begin with the simplest of observations — that the night sky looks dark. This darkness implies that the universe is not infinitely old, as scientists once thought. If it were, starlight would already have seeped into all corners of space, thus giving a hot and uniform glow across the sky This insight is known as olbers' paradox, after the 19th century German astronomer Welhelm Olbers.
Can sunlight be stored?
Plants take in sunlight and combine it with carbon dioxide from the air and water and minerals from the ground. The energy of sunlight is stored in the leaves. Some of the sunlight gets stored underground. This stored sunlight is in the form of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum.
What is albedo?
The albedo of an object is the extent to which it diffusely reflects light from the Sun. It is a more specific form of reflectivity. Albedo is the ratio of the diffusely reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. It is a unitless measure indicative of a surface's or a body's diffuse reflectivity.
Is it possible to conduct electricity without wires?
Wireless electric power transfer is theoretically possible and it's in the R&D phase of many leading research labs in the world. Nasa hopes to power its Mars Rover wirelessly in future missions. The basic technology is simple: rectify the received microwave signal using a microwave low-pass filter and a diode.
What is green oil?
Green oil is a lubricant which is non-toxic, biodegradable, petroleum-free and less expensive. The greenwood chain saw oil was first blended by the Green Oil Company in 1992. These days, in addition to chain saw oil, it is blended with environmentally-safe hydraulic fluids including greases and bicycle oils.
Can there be light without heat?
Yes, we can have light without heat. The light from such reactions is called cool light. Many chemical reactions produce poth light and heat. It is much less common for a chemical reaction to produce light without heat. Such chemical reactions are called chemiluminescent reactions, the most familiar of which occur in living organisms. Fireflies produce light without heat through this reaction.
What is loop quantum cosmology?
It is the theory on which the concept of the recycled universe is based. Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) has been teasing physicists since 2003 with the idea that our universe could conceivably have emerged from the collapse of a previous universe. It theorises that our universe expands and then contracts over and over again, rebirthing for infinity.
Is it possible to slow down or speed up time?
Yes, it is. The theory of relativity treats time as the fourth dimension, which has a barrier as any other force. It is also stated that time barrier ean be broken only if we achieve the speed of light. But there is a catch. According to the theory to achieve the speed of light, you need to have infinite amount of energy But it is possible to slow down time; this is called time distortion where it is said that the closer you travel to the speed of light, the speed of time in the ship is slower compared to the speed of time outside the ship.
Who came up with the concept of vacuum?
In earlier civilisations, there was much doubt about whether vacuum can exist. In the mediaeval Islamic world, physicist Ibn al-Haytham supported the existence of a void or vacuum. He mathematically demonstrated that vacuum is the imagined three-dimensional void between the inner surfaces of a containing body
What is the unit of magnetic power?
Earlier, the power of a magnet was only measured in units of gauss. Today, it is measured in gauss-oersted energy units. While gauss refers to the number of lines of flux emitted from a magnet, oersted is the unit of measurement that defines the distance of the power of the flux which extends from the surface.
What is the cause of the earth's magnetic field?
Originally, it was thought that the centre of the earth has magnetized iron deposits, which caused it to act like a huge permanent bar magnet. However, the theory failed to explain how the magnetic field had sustained itself for long, because even if there was magnetized iron in the core earlier, the core of the earth is so hot that any permanent magnet would lose its magnetism. According to the currently accepted dynamo theory, earth's magnetism is caused mostly by the rotating liquid outer core of the earth.
What is hydrocracking in petroleum refining?
Hydrocracking technology is an important conversion technology for producing high-value naphtha or distillate products from refinery feedstocks. It is a two-stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, where heavy feedstock is cracked in the presence of hydrogen. The process employs high pressure, high temperature, a catalyst and hydrogen.
What is administratium?
It is a spoof on administration. Its official definition: Administratium is the heaviest element known to science and was recently discovered at a major US research university The element has no protons or electrons and thus, has the atomic number 0. However, it does have one neutron, 125 assistant neutrons, 75 vice-neutrons and 111 assistant vice-neutrons, which gives it an atomic mass of 312. These 312 particles are held together by a force that involves the continuous exchange of meson-like particles called morons. Since it has no electrons, administratium is inert. However, it can be detected chemically as it impedes every reaction it comes in contact with.
About the Author
Dr. Ashok Kumar Sharma, M.A.(History); Certificate in Taxidermy(Madras); Certifate in Library Science (TOPPER-ML Sukhadia Uni. Udaipur,(Rajasthan) INDIA. Hobby: Cricket; Postal Stamp Collection and Collection of Quotations since 1981.
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